Short notes on the five main agricultural regions of India
M. S. Randhawa (1958) on the basis of regional variation in physical environmental conditions, crop characteristics and animals has identified five main agricultural regions in India
1. Temperate Himalayan Region
This includes whole of the Himalayan region from Jammu and Kashmir in the west and Arunachal Pradesh in the east. It has two sub-divisions: (a) eastern part dominated by tea and rice, and (b) western part characterised by fruits, maize and potato.
(a) Eastern Himalayan Region-this includes Sikkim, Bhutan, upper Assam and Arunachal Pradesh. The region is characterised by heavy rainfall (more than 250 cm) and thick forests of sal. Here tea and rice are the important crops.
(b) Western Himalayan Region-this includes Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Uttaranchal. The climate is dry but northern parts receive winter rainfall. Horticulture growing fruits like apples, cherries, apricots, walnuts, almonds, peaches, pears and plums etc is important. Other cultivated crops include potato, maize and rice. Goat and sheep rearing provides wool and meat. Apiculture is an important activity in Himachal Pradesh.
2. Northern Dry (Wheat) Region
This occupies Punjab, Haryana, western Uttar Pradesh, Delhi, north-western Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. The annual rainfall is less than 75 cm. Wheat, maize; cotton, gram and millet are main crops. Camel is the main animal although sheep, goats, horses and donkeys are also common.
3. Eastern Wet (Rice) Region
In includes north-eastern states (Assam Meghalaya, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura), West Bengal, Bihar, Orissa, Chhattisgarh, eastern Uttar Pradesh and northern Andhra Pradesh. Annual rainfall is more than 150 cm and the soil is mainly alluvium.
Rice, Jute, sugarcane and tea are main crops. Buffalo is the main domestic animal.
4. Western Wet (Malabar) Region
This region includes the western coastal plain from Maharashtra to Kerala. Here amount of annual rainfall is more than 250 cm and the soil is lateritic. Rice is the main food crop although coconut and plantation crops (rubber, coffee, spices, cashew etc.) predominate the landscape.
5. Southern Coarse Cereals (Medium Rainfall) Region
This comprises southern Uttar Pradesh, southwestern Madhya Pradesh, and southern Gujarat, eastern
Maharashtra, western Andhra Pradesh, east Karnataka and western Tamil Nadu. The reign receives annual rainfall between 50 and 100 cm/ soil is partly recur and partly laterite. Jowar, baj groundnut, cotton and castor seed are main crops Sheep rearing is practiced although the quality and quantity of wool are low.