How was the United Nations established? What were its primary objectives?
a. Establishment of the UNO:
The need for establishing an international body for the maintenance of world peace was felt from the very start of the World War II.
Many declarations and charters were signed and issued by the leaders of the Allied Powers. In this respect mention may be made of the London Declaration, Atlantic Charter, Moscow Declaration, etc.
It was in the Moscow Declaration that for the first time the necessity for the formation of the UNO was recognized clearly.
The Foreign Ministers of USA, France, Great Britain and USSR announced a common program for the early establishment of an international organization.
The Yalta Conference was a positive step forward towards the formation of the UNO. It was decided in the Conference that an international body will be established on the basis of the proposals accepted in the earlier conferences.
It was in the San Francisco Conference that the final drafting of the charter of the proposed organization was completed.
On 26 June 1945 representatives of 50 nations participating in the Conference signed and accepted the Charter of the United Nations.
And on 24 October 1945 the UNO was formally established. When the UNO started functioning its total number of members was 51
b. Primary Objectives:
The objectives of the United Nations spelt out in its Charter are as follows: (a) to maintain international peace and security ; (b) to recognize the right of self-determination of every nation of the world and to establish friendly relations between stages (c) to improve the economic, social, scientific and cultural condition in every country and to establish everyone in his rightful status as man and to allow him to enjoy all the human rights an independence ; (d) to co-operate mutually in solving the problems of food, health, education, unemployment, etc. ; (e) to allow every nation of the world, whether great or small, to enjoy the status of a ‘nation’ ; (f) to obey and implement all international pacts, treaties, laws, etc. and to settle all disputes through peaceful means ; (g) to maintain the sanctity of every other country’s territorial limits and not to apply force on any other state (h) to assist in the improvement of the backward and under-developed nations.