Complete information on the production of Fisheries in India

There are more than 1800 species of fish found in the sea and inland waters of India of which very few are commercially important. Pisciculture experts have classified commercially important va­rieties of sea fish into 15 groups and fresh water fish into 8 groups.

The important sea fish groups include cat fish, herrings, mackerels, perches, mullets, In­dian salmon, Jew fish, shell fish, eels, anchovies, plasma branches and dorab. Similarly main fresh wa­ter fish groups are loaches, cat fish, perches, eels, herrings, feather backs, mullets, carps prawns, morels and anchovies.

Production

India ranks third among major fish producing countries of the world. Of the 117 million tones of the world fish production, India contributes only 4.4 per cent (1996-97). The total fish production which was 7.52 lakh tones during 1950-51 increased to 65.10 lakh tones during 2004-05 registering a 766 per cent growth during the last 54 years (annual growth rate being 14.18 per cent).

There has been a very impressive growth in fish production in the country during 1991-92 when a total production of 41.57 lakh tones against the target of 39.00 lakh tones was achieved/Table 12.IX presents the trend in respect of marine and inland fisheries between 1950-51 and 2004-05.

The phenomenal rise in fish production in the country is called Blue Revolution. Although it has brought improvement in aqua-culture by adopting new techniques of fish breeding, fish rearing, fish marketing and fish export the shrimp farming has played a decisive role terming it as aqua-poison. Out of 52 species of shrimp available in the country, the Panaeus Monotones is the most popular species due to its quick growth and greater tolerance to changes in environmental conditions. In 120 days it grows to 30-35 grammes and in 135 days up to 45 grammes.

The colours, texture, taste and flavor of tiger shrimp has won favour in international market. P. Indices are another species cultured along the west coast, Andhra Pradesh and Tamil Nadu. Nellore district is called the ‘Shrimp capital of India’ Cul­tured shrimp production increased steadily from 1990-91 to a peak of 90,000 tons during 1992-93 but declined to 70,573 tons in 1995-96 from an area of 1.2 lakh ha.